Two things that is so American, one is coca cola and another is jeans. Jeans is undeniably the most popular outfit of our time. So how did it all start? First thing first, jeans was not an invention of America, but credit definitely goes to America for popularizing it.
Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa, Italy, and Nîmes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, may be the origin of the word “jeans”. In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes, meaning “from Nîmes”. The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.
May 20, 1873 – The Birth of Jeans
Levi Strauss, as a young man in 1851, went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In 1853, he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. Jacob Davis was a tailor who often bought bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co. wholesale house. In 1872, Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets. The copper rivets were to reinforce the points of stress, such as pocket corners and at the bottom of the button fly. Levi accepted Davis’s offer, and the two men received US patent No. 139,121 for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings” on May 20, 1873.
Initially, Levi’s jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers, miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West. During this period, men’s jeans had the fly down the front, whereas women’s jeans had the fly down the left side. When Levi Strauss & Co. patented the modern, mass-produced prototype in the year 1873, there were two pockets in the front and one on the back with copper rivets. Later, the jeans were redesigned to today’s industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets.
During World War II, US soldiers introduced jeans to the world, by wearing them off duty.
After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause, wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the 1950s. During the 1960s the wearing of jeans became more acceptable, and by the 1970s, it had become general fashion in the United States for casual wear.
Also, during 50s, teenagers embraced blue jeans, when Hollywood movies used jeans as a fashionable symbol of rebellion against the status quo. Pop culture “bad boys” such as James Dean and Marlon Brando popularized jeans in their films, wearing denim as they shook up the squares.
The 1960s launched the beginning of the hippie age. The youthful, free love movement that rocked American culture embraced the casual blue jean, which was seen to represent freedom from more structured clothing. Embroidery, bright colors, stone washing, rhinestones , and patches were just some of the hip jean trends of the time. Popular cuts included bell bottom flares and low-rise hip huggers. Double denim also made its first real appearance as a fashion trend during the 1960s, and jean jackets became standard hippie wear, and were often decorated with sew-on decals.
In the early 1980s, the denim industry introduced the stone-washing technique developed by GWG also known as “Great Western Garment Co.” which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market.
Same time around, Calvin Klein brought denim to the forefront of every fashion designer’s mind. Designer jeans became a true status symbol in popular culture, and brands including Calvin Klein, Jordache, and Gloria Vanderbilt were among the most coveted by fashion girls and guys. Stone wash, acid wash, and ripped jeans were some of the most desired looks of this decade, along with the new, skinnier leg cuts that were tapered at the ankle. Even men got in on the designer denim trend in this decade, and started to show up more in jeans advertising.
Likewise, with more cultural evolution, there came baggy jeans, skinny jeans, higher waists, cropped legs, and what not all.
and here we are. Jeans is love, jeans is life.
How Einstein Discovered Time Travel
In the year 1905 A.D, Einstein published his work that later came to be known as the “theory of special relativity”. The paper consisted of ideas that were far ahead of its time. The theory was revolutionary but also was so unconventional that it shook peoples intuition about space and time. The former concept of time being universal to all the being on and off earth was changed by him. His theory postulates that the speed of light will be same irrespective of the state of motion of its source.
His theory brought about the concept of time dilation. Time dilation simply means, that time runs slower when you travel at speed comparable to the speed of light i.e “c”. Now this may seem to be uncommon or had to visualize but its a proven phenomenon and that is how he discovered the ways for time travel. From his theory the following can be used for future time travel:
It might come as a shock but the people in the international space station that is always rotating earth at a high speed are actually time travelers. Their constant state of motion in comparatively high speed bring about the minuscule level of time dilation. This dilation causes them to age slower than the rest of people on earth. In other words, if we are able to travel at a speed of 90% of light’s speed we will age 2.6 times slower than people on earth. Travel now at that speed and leave earth, if we come back after 4 years the earth will have already advanced by 10 years. That means we literally jumped 6 years of earth time. Though our friends on the ISS don’t experience such big time jump, but they do gain some very very small amount of extra time.
The particles that runs through particle accelerators like LHC, are very lucky. They travel at a speed of 99.99% of speed of light and for them 1 sec is equal to 11 months on earth normal time. This is the result of time dilation and thus Einstein discovered or more like theorized it.
The other method also came from Einstein. This time general relativity. In general relativity he introduced the concept of how the universe experiences the space and time as wide spread cloth that can bend when an object is placed over it. For simplicity imagine a stretch trampoline with a heavy ball in the middle. Those curves around the ball is the bend in space and time. Now if the ball is big enough to bring about a major bend in space and time, he says it can slower the time. Precise atomic clocks at different gravity level have been used to test for this phenomenon and turns out, it is true. When an object is subjected to heavy gravitational force it experiences a slower time. Practically, we would need a very heavy object like a black hole or other such scale heavenly bodies to see a significant time jump for us. Though it seems not feasible for humans any time soon, the clocks on the satellites seem to experience it all the time. Those clocks and the clocks on earth are required to be constantly synchronised taking in account for the gravity to keep them functioning.
The GPS satellites are constructed taking in account for both the time dilation and gravitational effects. If any one of them is left out, your GPS won’t be working as precisely as it should be.
As explained in the movie “Interstellar”, wormholes are holes in spacetime connecting two different points of space and time. These “holes” in spacetime are also the solution to the equation published by Einstein in his theory of general relativity. Theoretically, anything that goes through wormholes can jump between two points of space and time. It is believed that many wormholes are being constantly created and destroyed in the quantum level but finding a wormhole that can fit a person or a spaceship is a challenge yet to be completed.
Apparently, time travel isn’t really an unattained dream at this point. The only compromise is it is not significantly large and we can’t seems to control at which point we exactly want to go. If you are still thinking about traveling back in time then it is discussed in this post. What you think about time travel? let us know in the comment.
Report: Sexual Behavior trend among sexually-active urban Nepalese youth
We had conducted an online survey to learn about sexual behavior, trend and pattern, among Nepalese urban youths. It’s a report based on that.
In order to learn sexual behavior trend among urban Nepalese youth, we had asked Kmag followers to participate in a survey anomalously to answer the following questions:
- Their age when they had their first sex
- Gender. Options given were: Male, female, and others.
- District where they had their first sex.
- We had asked if it was before marriage or after marriage.
- If it was a casual sex or while in relationship.
There were 396 respondents participating in the survey, out of which 284 had identified themselves as male, 109 had identified themselves as female, and 3 had identified themselves as Other (LGBTQ).
Background of respondents
Kmag being an English magazine and most followers being from Kathmandu and other major cities within the age bracket of 18-35, respondents can be classified as Urban Nepalese youth with good English proficiency, making them relatively exposed to global trend and modern values. Thus, this survey may or may not represent the whole Nepalese youth, but can be good hint to gauge the pattern and trend of sexual behavior among Nepalese youth in whole.
Purpose of the survey
Purpose of the survey was to learn the sexual behavior among urban Nepalese youth, basically in terms of:
- At what age, they begin to be sexually active.
- Gender wise sexual behavior.
- Percentage of premarital sex.
- Nature of sexual relationship.
Authenticity of the survey
The survey was conducted online through anonymous form. There can be a chance of false information being provided. However, the case should only be marginal.
Data Analysis (WHAT WE FOUND)
Going through the data collected, we have broken down the data to make analysis on following heading
Average age at the time of first sex (Lost Virginity)
Per the report, the age at which respondents claimed to lose their virginity ranged from 13 years old to 30 years old.
In an average, sexually-active urban Nepalese youths had lost their virginity at age 20.36, in which males had lost their virginity at age 20.15 in average, and females at age 20.79 in average. 45% of males and 40% of females were found to have lost their virginity at age between 17-20. However, data also showed a pattern that quite lot of females lose their virginity in early and mid 20s (35%), whereas males tend to lose their virginity in their late teen.
181 out of 396 respondents had their first sex in their teenage. That means 45.7% respondents had their first sex in their teen age.
Breaking it down gender wise:
Male: 47.5% of male respondents had their first sex in their teen age.
Female: 42.2% of female respondents had their first sex in their teen age.
368 out of 396 respondents had their first sex before marriage, making it 92.92%.
Only 14 females out of 109 had sex after marriage, making 87.16% females with premarital sex.
Only 14 males out of 284 had sex after marriage, making 95.07% males with premarital sex.
Nature of Sex
We had asked if their first sex was casual sex or with someone they were in relationship with.
64.89% had their first sex with someone they were in relationship with.
35.11% had their first sex with someone they were not in relationship and had it as casual sex.
To break it down, gender wise:
116 out of 284 males had their first sex as casual sex (40.84%)
21 out of 109 females had their first sex as casual sex (19.26%)
This pattern says casual sex being usual and normal among youth, especially in their early days of exploring sexual life.
- Most urban youths from Nepal seem to become sexually active from age 17.
- Average age of losing virginity among these youth is 20.38 years old.
- Within sexually-active demography, premarital sex holds 92%.
- 3 in 10 had their first sex in casual bonding and not with someone in relationship.
This online survey may not give the exact picture of sexual behavioral of Nepalese youths in general, but it pretty much can hint us on the sexual behavior pattern and trend among urban Nepalese youths.
40% and more sexually-active youths were active since their teenage.
Likewise, there are 92% sexually-active youths before marriage itself.
In the country like Nepal where sex is still a taboo and neither at home nor in everyday life people openly talk about it, it’s in a way scary that so many youths are sexually active in a sexually-conservative society with no support system in case of pregnancy outside marriage or STDs. The lack of sex education, awareness, and support system are putting so much of youths in such a vulnerable position that if anything goes wrong, they are forced to deal with it secretly.
For betterment of all, we recommend strong support system for sexually-active youths to reach out for help when in need. Also, we recommend active sex education and awareness to build a healthy society.
Why government is hell bent for “Nijgadh Airport”
This piece is written giving benefits of doubt to government based on the interview and giving more dimensions to the debate. Don’t mistake us as supporting the project or advocating for.
Let’s assume there is no ill intention. Let’s think Nepal government, or to be more precise, NCP-led government has real good plan and reasoning behind why they want to spend billions of dollars for an airport of Kathmandu size. Let’s give them all the benefits of doubt – all in good faith.
There is no official statement as such on why but going through old interview in Nepali Times of late Rabindra Adhikari, Aviation Minister then, the man behind bringing back this 90s agenda from coma, had said this in an interview, where he was asked.
Q. Why this mega Int airport when two more international airports coming up in Bhairawa and Pokhara …
Rabindra Adhikari: You cannot compare Bhairawa and Pokhara with Nijgad. Not even Kathmandu will match Nijgad Airport’s scale and scope. It will be an international air hub — a real game changer for Nepal’s economy. International flights from over two dozen cities will be landing every day, tens of thousands of passengers will catch connecting flights. Planes will also be making stopovers for refueling. It will be bigger, more advanced and busier than any other airport in Nepal.
Reading between the lines said by Rabindra Adhikari, that is what government is up to — it is making an International Air Hub.
Government is not building this airport to lower air congestion or whatever you call it focusing on Nepalese people alone. They are up to something bigger and that is Air Hub.
What is Air Hub
Airline hub or hub airport is an airport used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
To put it in a perspective, let’s say three people from Pokhara are flying to US, 5 from Kathmandu, 2 from Bhairahawa, 1 from Nepalgunj, 10 from Chitwan, and there is only direct flight to US from Nepal. The airline cannot go to each airport to pick its passengers, so what happens in real world is different airlines bring these people to one airport, from where the direct airline for US to take them. That one mother of all airport is called Air Hub.
You must be aware that every Nepalese (or Indian) flying to US are generally first taken to Dubai and then from there, will be taken to US. The Dubai Airport here acts as Air Hub.
That’s basic understanding of Air Hub.
Now, you may say, “But then, even in that case, Nepal does not have that many passengers to cover the handling expenses of Air Hub.”
Exactly. So that means, government is eyeing to much bigger picture. They want Nepal to be Air Hub, not to concentrate passengers from different parts of Nepal alone but different countries from South Asia (and other regions) from the continent. Maybe, they want to be alternate to Dubai or Hong Kong, that Indian flight passengers or Bangaladeshi or Sri Lankian flying to US or Australia to be brought to Nepal, from where direct flights operate.
Air hub is not only about passengers but also to deal with cargoes and many other air-industry related activities.
What’s the benefit
When you are connecting points for everyone, you can earn good money through freight charges, services charges, fuels, and many other trades and charges. Not just that but also, when you are center point, you attract more businesses around, adding more to GDP. So basically, huge boost to country’s economy.
Going by the interview, Nijgadh Airport seems like an ambitious investment plan of Nepal government, hoping, if it succeeds to build one, Nepal can get good return along with national pride. Now, of course, there is a threat from India which only gives one entry point and yet to see how diplomacy will succeed to get India cooperate with Nepal to turn into an Air Hub.
So in case you are thinking and wondering why Nepal needs such a massive airport when we already have 3 international airports, now you have the clue. Tax payers money is not enough to build such Air Hub by Nepal alone, and it needs to borrow the money from somewhere from someone. The other side will only give money when they know the plan that seems realistic and feasible. If Nepal gets the money, there is something really promising in the plan. At least, let’s hope so, giving the benefits of doubt to the government.
We wrote this piece giving benefits of doubt to government based on the interview and giving more dimensions to the debate. Don’t mistake us as supporting the project or advocating for.
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