Two things that is so American, one is coca cola and another is jeans. Jeans is undeniably the most popular outfit of our time. So how did it all start? First thing first, jeans was not an invention of America, but credit definitely goes to America for popularizing it.
Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa, Italy, and Nîmes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, may be the origin of the word “jeans”. In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes, meaning “from Nîmes”. The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.
May 20, 1873 – The Birth of Jeans
Levi Strauss, as a young man in 1851, went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In 1853, he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. Jacob Davis was a tailor who often bought bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co. wholesale house. In 1872, Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets. The copper rivets were to reinforce the points of stress, such as pocket corners and at the bottom of the button fly. Levi accepted Davis’s offer, and the two men received US patent No. 139,121 for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings” on May 20, 1873.
Initially, Levi’s jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers, miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West. During this period, men’s jeans had the fly down the front, whereas women’s jeans had the fly down the left side. When Levi Strauss & Co. patented the modern, mass-produced prototype in the year 1873, there were two pockets in the front and one on the back with copper rivets. Later, the jeans were redesigned to today’s industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets.
During World War II, US soldiers introduced jeans to the world, by wearing them off duty.
After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause, wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the 1950s. During the 1960s the wearing of jeans became more acceptable, and by the 1970s, it had become general fashion in the United States for casual wear.
Also, during 50s, teenagers embraced blue jeans, when Hollywood movies used jeans as a fashionable symbol of rebellion against the status quo. Pop culture “bad boys” such as James Dean and Marlon Brando popularized jeans in their films, wearing denim as they shook up the squares.
The 1960s launched the beginning of the hippie age. The youthful, free love movement that rocked American culture embraced the casual blue jean, which was seen to represent freedom from more structured clothing. Embroidery, bright colors, stone washing, rhinestones , and patches were just some of the hip jean trends of the time. Popular cuts included bell bottom flares and low-rise hip huggers. Double denim also made its first real appearance as a fashion trend during the 1960s, and jean jackets became standard hippie wear, and were often decorated with sew-on decals.
In the early 1980s, the denim industry introduced the stone-washing technique developed by GWG also known as “Great Western Garment Co.” which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market.
Same time around, Calvin Klein brought denim to the forefront of every fashion designer’s mind. Designer jeans became a true status symbol in popular culture, and brands including Calvin Klein, Jordache, and Gloria Vanderbilt were among the most coveted by fashion girls and guys. Stone wash, acid wash, and ripped jeans were some of the most desired looks of this decade, along with the new, skinnier leg cuts that were tapered at the ankle. Even men got in on the designer denim trend in this decade, and started to show up more in jeans advertising.
Likewise, with more cultural evolution, there came baggy jeans, skinny jeans, higher waists, cropped legs, and what not all.
and here we are. Jeans is love, jeans is life.
Fractals: The beauty of order within the Chaos
From the veins of a single leaf to a whole of a rainforest, at first glance everything that’s around seemed random and chaotic. When scientists and mathematicians looked at it no one was particularly intrigued by this unexplainable chaos. This led to everyone curling back to the world they created and could explain. Circles, lines, triangles etc were simple, easy and something that we could easily put into mathematical words as equations. Our artificial world was built around it. But as we went into explaining the true shapes of nature, most of it won’t fit into this simple geometry.
Then in 1980 a mathematician named Benoit Mandelbrot, then working in IBM discovered the Mandelbrot set. His equation looked something like this:
z->z ² + c
The equation took an initial number and gave an output and again used the output as initial number. The equation was iterated millions of times. The result was plotted and the figure above is what he got from the plot.
This psychedelic looking image when zoomed in on, repeats itself and never ends. The randomness of the simple equation when first plotted with few numbers, after thousands of iteration repeats itself and produces such complex pattern. He named it the “Fractals”, as the geometry was fractured but the shape had order and can be produced by simple equations. This opened up a whole new world of natural mathematics.
From graphically designing mountains, flowing lava in movies to studying the natural phenomenon like weather patterns, building compacted antennas; Fractals geometry had numerous implication. When we search around our real natural world, the pattern of delta formed by rivers, the branching of trees, the inside of our lungs, the beating of our heart and most of the nature is found to be following this fractal geometry.
After watching the world around us through the fractals, this chaotic and random nature has a much simpler order and beauty within the seeming chaos. Pleasing to eyes and satisfying to the soul these fractal patterns, irrespective of naturally occurring or computer generated resonates perfectly with every human to some degree. This leads some to believe that maybe even our mind itself is a fractal, as infinite as it is and well compacted with a skull.
Lichtenberg figure is fractal and closely resembles the thunder-lightning.
The shell shows a fractal pattern
Veins in leaves are fractals
They Need Us !!
Before going for the Trek & Treat Campaign (Eye Health Screening Camp in remote areas of Nepal) I had some idea about what I would be seeing in those remote villages of Nepal. I was already aware of the fact that many remote places of Nepal are still deprived of basic health care services. I knew that the things we keep hearing on radio and televisions about people dying without getting a mere ORS solutions (Jeevan Jal) is still prevalent in many of such rural areas of Nepal. I also knew that there are many people whose blindness that can be prevented are still living their life in darkness. I always knew that there are people in those remote areas who does not have enough money to come to the city for their treatment. But is knowing things just enough?? Can we do something better than just knowing things? Hopefully we can !!
Let me tell you our journey of the first Trek & Treat Campaign. After 5 hours of hiking from RARA Lake we reached Khatyad, a remote village of Mugu District. The only means of transportation were the mules and there were no signs of proper health care centers around. We were trekking from RARA to Khaptad and Khatyad was on our way of the trekking route. We were prepared with our basic screening instruments and medicines to carry out our first screening camp at Khatyad and it was during our screening camp that I really felt upset about the health care system of our country about which I already knew before. We saw a 28 days old child who had injury in her left eye and needed immediate surgical intervention. Though the treatment of such cases are usually done at free of cost, the parents did not have enough money even to travel to the city. Sadly, the child passed away the next day without proper treatment facility in the village. Knowing things and seeing things were now completely two different things for me. After what I experienced being in that village for a couple of days made me realize that if I do not take things seriously now and work harder to solve this problem (at least the problem of eye health care service from my side) then I would be no different than other people who just know things but do nothing.
We now have dreamt of making Trek & Treat a nationwide health care campaign to reach those people who needs us. To make this happen we need help from everyone around us. Some of us here are Optometrists, Ophthalmologists, Physiotherapists, Cardiologists, Writers, Photographers, Content Creators, Bloggers, Drivers, etc, etc. If we can all just spare about couple of days from our busy schedule and work together to help those in need then we can indeed make places like Khatyad a better place with better facilities.
Changes come from ourselves. Please be the change and lead others to make the change.
Nepal makes major jump in ‘Ease of Doing Business’ Ranking 2020
The Doing Business project by World Bank provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level.
Nepal jumped 16 points to the 94th position on the World Bank’s ease of doing business ranking for 2020, with DB score of 63.2.
In 2019, Nepal was positioned at 110th rank which was a slip from its 105th position in 2018.
The Doing Business project by World Bank provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level. Doing Business captures several important dimensions of the regulatory environment as it applies to local firms. It provides quantitative indicators on regulation for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. Doing Business also measures features of employing workers.
Ranking of doing business topics
Starting a business:
This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city. Nepal ranked 135 among 190 economies in this topic.
Dealing with Construction Permits
This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements. Nepal ranked 107 among 190 economies in this topic.
The topic measures ease of getting electricity in Nepal by a business firm or warehouse if it has to apply for a new one. Nepal ranked 135 among 190 economies in this topic.
This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land administration system in each economy. Nepal ranked 97 in this topic out of 190 economies.
This topic explores two sets of issues—the strength of credit reporting systems and the effectiveness of collateral and bankruptcy laws in facilitating lending. Nepal has made significant improvement in this front and thus is ranked at 37th position out of 190 economies.
Protecting minority investors
This topic measures the strength of minority shareholder protections against misuse of corporate assets by directors for their personal gain as well as shareholder rights, governance safeguards and corporate transparency requirements that reduce the risk of abuse. Nepal ranked 79 among 190 economies in this topic.
This topic records the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year, as well as the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions and complying with post-filing procedures (VAT refund and tax audit). Nepal is quite behind when it comes to ease of paying taxes ranking at 175th position out of 190 economies.
Trading across borders
The topic records the time and cost associated with the logistical process of exporting and importing goods. It also measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs) associated with three sets of procedures—documentary compliance, border compliance and domestic transport—within the overall process of exporting or importing a shipment of goods. Nepal ranked 60 in this topic.
The enforcing contracts indicator measures the time and cost for resolving a commercial dispute through a local first-instance court, and the quality of judicial processes index, evaluating whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices that promote quality and efficiency in the court system. Nepal ranked 151 out of 190 economies in this topic.
It deals with the time, cost and outcome of insolvency proceedings involving domestic legal entities. Nepal ranked 87.
Nepal’s Position in South Asia
Nepal ranks third in South Asia, India being first.
In overall, India jumped 14 places to rank 63. It also secured its position in Top-10 Improvers. China ranked 31
Also know this
Top 10 countries on Ease of Doing Business
- New Zealand.
- Hong Kong China
- Korea Republic
- United States
- United Kingdom
Worst 10 countries on Ease of Doing Business
- South Sudan
- Central African Republic
In 2014, Nepal ranked 94th position but then it went on slipping from the position to 110th, until this point where it has bounced back to 94th position. However, Nepal could not make to Top-20 Improvers list, which is made based on reforms implemented in easing doing business, which should be of concern.
For complete report, click here
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