Students Unions don’t have too long history in Nepal. But they have helped in every revolution inside the country. In this post we will talk about the history of Students Organizations which has been active for educational , social and political changes.
Student organizations are the autonomous group of students established in educational institutions with same political ideology or interest. It can also be a group of students from same district or home town and also group of interested students on certain activities such as literature, sports, etc. Generally, it is formed for the welfare and intellectual development of the students.
Student Unions are the students organizations which are formed by students of same political ideology within the Educational Institutions.
Free Students’ Union (FSU)
It is the elected committee of different Student Union who become the recognized mediator between the students and the administration of an institution.
Establishment Timeline of Student Unions in Nepal
1991 BS – Nepal Student Organizations formed by Nepali student in Banaras, India
2001 BS – Himanchal Student Organization (Himanchal Bidhyarthi Sangh) was formed by Nepali student in Calcutta, India.
2006 BS – All Nepal Student Federation (ANSF) established
2022 BS – All Nepal National Student Union (ANNSU) formed from ANSF which was a near-Communist Ideology.
2027 BS – Nepal student Union (NSU) created from ANSF under the leadership of Sher Bahadur Deuba which was the student union of a Democratic Party i.e. Nepali Congress
“Nepali Student Organization” was the first student organization established by Nepali students in 1991 BS in Banaras, India to revolt against the Rana Regime. In Nepal, there were only few educational institutions and many Nepalese used to go to India for their studies. Also as India is the close neighbour of Nepal with similar culture, language; and moreover, India itself was in a movement for its independence. So, it was easier for Nepali student to gather and revolt against the autocratic Rana Regime from there. Forming student unions and protesting against the Rana regime while staying in Nepal was not easy and safe at that time.
Ganga Lal Shrestha, founding member of Nepali Student Organization as well as a student leader of Tri Chandra College was hanged in 1997 BS for the charge of rebelling against the Rana regime. So, Ganga Lal Shrestha is also considered as the first student movement martyr of Nepal. Also, Nepali student formed “Himanchal Bidhyarthi Sangh” (Himanchal Student Organization) to revolt against the Rana from Calcutta, India in 2001 BS.
The “Jayatu Sanskritam” was first Nepali student protest held in 2004 BS, which was organized with demand of making arrangement of study of modern subjects like Science , Business , Economics, Mathematics , Geology etc. rather than the religious subjects only. However, in reality it was just an outer reason to display, the actual intension was to start an uprising against the Ranas. Ranas didn’t want to open more educational institutions inside the country, thinking that people would become informed and educated and their regime would be threatened. They wanted student to study only religious study.
In 2006 BS, All Nepal Student Federation (ANSF) was established which was also the outcome of First Nepali Student Movement “Jayatu Sanskritam”. ANSF is considered as the first organized Student Union in Nepal which is also the mother of all present Student Unions.
After the end of Rana Regime in 2007 BS and establishment of democracy, the ban on Political organizations was lifted up. At that time, Nepali Congress, Nepal Communist Party and few other political parties were in existence.
But the democracy was only short-lived as it was again hijacked in 2017 BS whereby the Panchayat system started in the country. Political parties were banned again and many political leaders were exiled or locked up. The Panchayat was very strict against political parties as they would influence people on democracy and freedom.
At the same time, the political parties formed their student wings which were not forbidden. They knew that to convey their message to the people, student unions could be a good medium. They could make the youth aware about democracy and also could create favourable environment to revolt against the Panchayat system.
In 2022 BS, the Communist Party formed their student wing called “All Nepal National Free Student Union” (ANNFSU). Also in 2027 BS, the student wing of Nepali Congress was formed under the leadership of Sher Bahadur Deuba.
Students used to gather under the Student Union where they were given special classes by the Political leaders. They were made aware of the importance of democracy, equality, justice and freedom. The Student Unions became a means for the Political Parties to initiate a rebellion.
In 2036 BS, students protested in response to the Death penalty of Ex-Prime minister of Pakistan Julfiyar Ali Bhutto by the military government. There was a clash between the Students and riot police near the Embassy of Pakistan. The clash resulted in unrest among the students on account of police brutality. Students then put forward a list of demands to the government, urging an end to police repression against the student movement. A series of other protests were held by students in the days to come. In this way, the protest against a death penalty turned into a protest against autocratic Panchayati rule. Finally, the then King Birendra declared the Referendum, which was held in 2037 BS.
Student Unions fought for Democracy till its restoration in 2046 BS. At that time, lots of young children of poor Illiterate parents from every corner of the country were in college. Students Unions made them aware about the democracy, freedom ,rights, justice. So those young students used to transfer all those ideas/message to others. Student Unions visited every schools, collage of the country to recruit new members and also conveyed the message of the political parties. So the Nepalese society quickly become aware of the necessity for a rebellion. Consequently, the Mass Revolution of 2046 became successful.
After the restoration of Democracy , Student Unions worked to solve the problems within their Educational Institution. Also, they protested against some issues such as the Hritik Roshan Case, controversial project of Tanakpur, against corruption, inflation and many more. ANNFSU (Revolutionary), a student wing of the Communist party(Maoist) supported and involved in the war led by their parent party starting in 2052 BS.
But again after King Gyanendra took the power in his hands, the Student Union with their mother organization began to revolt against him. They played a major role in the protest against undemocratic government and in the success of the Mass Movement of 2062/63.
Now, we have democracy and Freedom. In previous days, there was a great role of the Student Unions inside and outside the institutions . They used to overview all the nationals and international activities and lead all protest or campaign.
Students Unions certainly have glorious history and have achieved major achievements in past days. At this time obviously Students Unions are not limited inside the educational institution only but their role didn’t last like those previous days.
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Citizenship Act: What’s the issue
Many from Nepal seem quite confused when it comes to the debate on citizenship provision in New Constitution and I reckon that’s because the constitution came in rush without much of discourse and debates and lot other factors like nationalist rhetoric. So here is my attempt to explain everything in very simplistic way.
What constitution has said about citizenship
There are two kinds of citizenship:
- Citizenship by descent.
- Naturalized citizenship
What’s the difference
Citizenship by descent is quite superior to naturalized citizenship in sense, in order for a person to be elected, nominated or appointed to the office of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Chief of State, Chief Minister, Speaker of a State Assembly, and chief of a security body, the person must have obtained the citizenship of Nepal by descent.
Which basically means if you have naturalized citizenship, you can never become President or Prime Minister or Chief Justice or anything mentioned above. Naturalized citizenship is basically designed for people who would like to obtain Nepali citizenship though didn’t have ancestral root in Nepal.
Ya, in a way, it makes sense for not letting naturalized citizen to become president of Nepal or Prime Minister of Nepal. Up to here, no issue.
So what’s the issue
This is the most complex part. So let’s go slow from here.
Neha and Raj are siblings. They both got married and both have children from their respective partners. As their children reached 18, they both went to get citizenship by descent for their children.
Neha’s child can get citizenship by descent if:
Clause a. Her husband holds Nepali citizenship.
Clause b. Her child was born in Nepal.
Clause c. Father of her child is not traceable.
Which means, Neha’s child can never get citizenship by descent even though she herself is citizen by descent if:
1. Her husband is a foreigner.
2. Her child was born outside Nepal.
3. She didn’t want to lie or hide father’s identity.
So, Neha must prove that either her husband is Nepali, or her child was born in Nepal, or she should simply lie that she does not know where the father of her child is. If she fails to provide any, her child will only get naturalized citizenship which means her child can never ever become president or prime minister of Nepal.
Whereas, Raj’s child can get citizenship by descent without any clause.
Can you see the difference??
Do we ask the same question to a man? “if he is married to a foreigner, he should get citizenship for his child from his wife’s country. Why Nepal?”
We don’t. Why? Because we are culturally wired in patriarchy.
Sufferers of this constitutional provision will not be Nepali girls marrying Nepali guys. Sufferers will be the following:
- A Nepali girl married to a foreign guy and got abandoned later with a child.
- A Nepali girl, who while working abroad, got impregnated through exploitation.
- A Nepali girl, who wants her child to be remained as Nepali though married to a foreigner.
- A couple (Nepali woman and foreign man) who wants to settle in Nepal and helps their children grow and reach to their full potential as freely and openly as any Nepalese couple by descent.
This will not be a case if is a Nepali man. If his wife (foreigner) abandons him, his child can still get citizenship by descent. If he wants his child to remain as Nepali though married to a foreigner, he can make that happen. If he wants to settle in Nepal with his foreign gf/wife , he can and still help his children grow and dream to their full potential as freely and openly as any Nepalese couple by descent.
Another issue is,
There is a provision though that will let child from such women get citizenship by descent. All she has to do is lie and tell “I don’t know where the father is.”
11.5 A person who is born in Nepal from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and has resided in Nepal and whose father is not traced shall be provided with the citizenship of Nepal by descent.
How awful, sad, frustrating, and sick can a constitutional clause be that is designed to work as loophole, to encourage contempt, practice lies, and make someone feel terrible?? Why can’t her child be given that goddamn citizenship by descent without too much drama and questioning??
There are thousands of Nepali women married to Indian men. Now what?? we give citizenship by descent to all those children?? No way!!
Boom! Nationalist rhetoric.
Why can’t we set uniform criteria for both male and female? Maybe something like, a child, whose father or mother is of foreign nationality, must have stayed in Nepal for X number of years to qualify for citizenship by descent. That would be win win for all.
To sum it up,
A brother gets married to an American girl. A sister gets married to a Korean guy. They both have babies from their respective partners. After some years, they got divorced.
Brother comes back to Nepal with his child and sister with her child.
18 years passed since then. Child from both have grown up. Time to get the citizenship. Brother’s child gets citizenship by descent and sister’s child gets naturalized citizenship. One can dream to become president of Nepal or Prime minister, and another’s can’t….just because she is not man.
That’s discrimination. Please don’t justify it showing people from other side of borders.
Why freedom of expression matters and its limitations
According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, freedom of expression is the right of every individual to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Freedom of expression is a wild game. At first, it all looks mess — everyone talking garbage. After sometime, garbage will get into a logical argument. Then, slowly logics will start replacing illogical voices. Within these logical ones, more logical arguments will happen. Finally, it will hit the limit of logic.
So, to rightly understand freedom of expression, understand that freedom of speech and expression have common limitations or boundaries relate to libel, slander, obscenity, sedition, incitement, classified information, copyright violation, right to privacy perjury, etc. As long as your freedom of expression does not fall under those things, you are all set to go exercise the right.
You know what does that mean?
It means, you are given rights and freedom so that you can prevent harm to others, so that you can utilise your liberty for your personal happiness which shall eventually benefit society/community. You are not given rights and freedom, many didn’t die for your rights and freedom, to grant you a power to harm others.
Information Technology Bill: All that you need to know
The bill includes detailed provisions on legal recognition of electronic records, electronic signature, protection and confidentiality of information, domain registration and management, public e-service, digital signature, provisions related to social media, information technology court, national information technology centre.
On Thursday, government tabled Information Technology Bill in the House of Representatives causing yet another outrage among people. Some provisions of the bill have created fear and suspicion among people. Critics are worried about possible abuse of this law by government and its authorities to deliberately incapacitate free speech of people.
What is this Bill about?
Ministry of Communication and Information Technology prepared and tabled the bill in parliament with an objective to have legal provision for the development of information technology, to promote, monitor and regulate it, maintain cyber security, control cyber crime and regulate the usage of social media in the country. Upon approval by the Federal Parliament, the bill will shape as an Act, replacing the existing Electronic Transaction Act, 2063.
What does this bill include?
This bill includes detailed provisions on legal recognition of electronic records, electronic signature, protection and confidentiality of information, domain registration and management, public e-service, digital signature, provisions related to social media, information technology court, national information technology centre.
What’s all the fuss about?
However, the major debate is on the provision related to Social Media. Clause 91 of the bill makes it mandatory for social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and others alike to register themselves in the country. They also need to open their office in the country and abide by its laws, rules and regulations. If not, government holds the authority and power to ban them.
Some provisions of the bill are ambiguous. For instance, Clause 94 restricts anyone from posting improper contents on social media. Clause 96 of the Bill permits government and its authorities to impose penalty of up to 15 Lakhs and up to 5 years of imprisonment for posting such improper contents on social networking sites. But what exactly constitute that “improper contents”? The definition is vague and can be misused by the government to target its critics. If the bill is passed as it is, there is an actual threat of government being more authoritarian and despotic.
Should we be worried if the bill passes?
After all this outrage, there is slim chance of Federal Parliament endorsing it without making necessary amendments. Our Constitution guarantees Freedom of Opinion and Expression under Article 17 (2) (a) as a Fundamental Right of the citizen. Nepal is one of the signatories of the UDHR and holds the compulsive responsibility to implement it. To guarantee Right to Freedom of Speech is binding for the government as it is a vital part of Customary International Law.
The bill hence, cannot snatch away that liberty from us. But by tabling it in the parliament, the Oli-led government has once more indulged itself into a nasty controversy. The damage has been done. What they’ll do to reconcile is all that matters.
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