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Timeline of History Of Earth

 

5 billion years ago :

  • There are stars and dust around the sun. Earth hasn’t formed yet. With time, gravity works to hold these rocks and dust to form planets.

 

4500 million years ago: 

  • Earth has been formed. Temperature is over 2000 F. The atmosphere is made up of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. And the earth surface is just an endless ocean of boiling lava.
  • Young hypothesized proto-planet Theia collides with the Earth, sending large number of moonlets into orbit around the Earth which eventually coalesce to form the Moon.
  • The entire day lasts only 6 hours.

 

3900 million years ago:

  • Although the core is still molten, the surface cools down to 70-80 degree celsius, forming crust.
  • The crust will allow the formation of oceans, from the water being carried by the continuous meteors shower occurring in the solar system.
  • With time, moon moves away causing the planet to spin slower.

 

3800 million years ago:

  • The lava bursts and form volcanic islands. But even with land and water, the temperature and atmosphere, however is not yet favorable for life.
  • As the meteors that have been falling down dissolve with water, they release minerals, carbon and primitive amino acids, turning water into the Chemical Soup. From this, the earliest form of life on earth is formed – Single celled bacteria (Prokaryotes).

 

3500 million years ago:

  • Stromatolites emerge on the bottom of the shallow ocean, with the extra ordinary capability of ”Photosynthesis”.  They slowly fill the oceans with oxygen.
  • The oxygen turns the traces of iron in the water into rust. These rusts accumulate in the ocean floor to form deposits of iron rich rocks.

 

1500 million years ago:

  • The temperature is 30 degree Celsius and days are now 18 hours long.
  • The core is so hot that it creates movement in the rock beneath the crust. As a result, the crust is broken into vast plates. The movement rearranges the plates and over 400 million years, a vast new super continent is formed called “Rodinia”.
  • Beneath the oceans, the stromatolites are still working their magic to create more oxygen.

 

750 million years ago:

  • As the heat inside the core tries to escape, it tears the crust apart and centimeter by centimeter, year by year, the great supercontinent splits in two.
  • The carbon dioxide emitted by continuous volcanoes mix with atmosphere to form acid rain, which is absorbed by rocks. However, there is not enough carbon dioxide to absorb sunlight.

 

650 million years ago:

  • In a few thousand years, the temperature plummets into -50 degree Celsius, giving rise to what the scientists called “The Snowball Earth”.
  • During this event, the entire planet is covered with ice as thick as three kilometers. Virtually, all the sunlight and warmth reflects back into space. It is believed to be the longest ice age to grip the planet.
  • Although the surface is frozen, the core is still hot. The carbon dioxide being emitted from volcanoes eruption, which now cannot be absorbed by the rocks as it’s covered by ice, forms a blanket of CO2 around the earth trapping the heat. After 15 million years, slowly the ice begins to melt.

 

600 million years ago:

  • The days last for 22 hours now and the climate is warmer.

 

540 million years ago:

  • Although the kind of glaciation in “The Snowball event” would have made life extinct entirely, some of the primitive life form clung through the Ice age and now a new life form- the first multi cellular organisms can be found.
  • Life in the ocean starts to blossom.

 

460 million years ago:

  • Even though there is life in ocean, the life on land is next to impossible due to lethal radiation from sun. However, ozone layer is in the process of formation.

 

375 million years ago:

  • Ozone layer has formed and the Earth is now shielded from radiation.
  • First land plants emerge.
  • The first tetra-pods evolve. From these creatures, all other four legged creatures like dinosaurs, birds, reptiles, mammals etc will evolve.
  • A major evolutionary breakthrough in this period is laying of eggs on the land.

 

250 million years ago:

  • The Siberian eruption leads to “Permian extinction”, which eliminates up to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates.

 

200 million years ago:

  • There is one single super continent “Pangea”, stretching from pole to pole.
  • The planet is healing, temperature stabilizing and vegetation returning. After the mass extinction, new species emerge- “The Dinosaurs”, which evolved from the handful of reptiles that survived the Permian extinction.

 

190 million years ago:

  • The Pangea breaks up and forms two continents. The chasm between two continents subsequently forms a new ocean “The Atlantic”.
  • Due to continuous eruptions and lava forcing its way out, new range of volcanic mountains are formed.

 

65 million years ago:

  • An asteroid 10 kilometers in diameter, travelling at speed of over 70000 km/hr hit the Earth and causes the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event with eradicating about half of all animal species, including the dinosaurs but excluding their descendants, the birds.
  • Purgatorius, a rat-sized placental mammal, becomes the earliest example of a primate or a proto-primate, which will later give rise to monkeys, apes and humans.

 

47 million years ago:

  • The temperature is 24 degree and days are under 24 hours, almost like our Earth we call home now.
  • Plates are in constant state of movement, forming a vast mountain range “ The Himalayas”.
  • Mount Everest is formed.

 

20 million years ago:

  • All the continents and oceans that we know today, have now been formed.
  • Some modern animals such as giraffes, hyenas, bears appear with increase in bird and mammal diversity.

 

4 million years ago:

  • Earliest bipedal emerged.

 

1.5 million years ago:

  • Homo Erectus were found.

 

70000 years ago:

  • The climate changes again. Sea levels fall and the gap between Africa and Arabia shrinks down to just 13 kilometers, making it easy for anatomically modern humans (Homo Sapiens)  to leave Africa and colonize other continents.

And then begun the Chapter of Humans.

 

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Knowledge & Infos

40-point demand by the Maoists in 1996

Just before the launch of their people’s war, the Maoists had submitted a 40-point demand to then Prime Minister, Sher Bahadur Deuba on Feb 4, 1996. Just after 9 days, on Feb 13, 1996, The Maoists launched their People’s War.

Published

on

4 February, 1996

Right Honourable Prime Minister
Prime Minister’s Office,
Singha Darbar, Kathmandu

Sub: Memorandum

Sir,

 

It has been six years since the autocratic monarchical partyless Panchayat system was ended by the 1990 People’s Movement and a constitutional monarchical multiparty parliamentary system established. During this period, state control has been exercised by a tripartite interim government, a single-party government of the Nepali Congress, a minority government of UML and a present Nepali Congress-RPP-Sadbhavana coalition. That, instead of making progress, the situation of the country and the people is going downhill is evident from the fact that Nepal has slid to being the second poorest country in the world; people living below the absolute poverty line has gone up to 71 per cent; the number of unemployed has reached more than 10 per cent while the number of people who are semi-employed or in disguised employment has crossed 60 per cent; the country is on the verge of bankruptcy due to rising foreign loans and deficit trade; economic and cultural encroachment within the country by foreign, and especially Indian, expansionists is increasing by the day; the gap between the rich and the poor and between towns and villages is growing wider. On the other hand, parliamentary parties that have formed the government by various means have shown that they are more interested in remaining in power with the blessings of foreign imperialist and expansionist masters than in the welfare of the country and the people. This is clear from their blindly adopting so-called privatization and liberalization to fulfill the interests of all imperialists and from the recent ‘national consensus’ reached in handing over the rights over Nepal’s water resources to Indian expansionists. Since 6 April, 1992, the United People’s Front has been involved in various struggles to fulfill relevant demands related to nationalism, democracy and livelihood, either by itself or with others. But rather than fulfilling those demands, the governments formed at different times have violently suppressed the agitators and taken the lives of hundreds; the most recent example of this is the armed police operation in Rolpa a few months back. In this context, we would like to once again present to the current coalition government demands related to nationalism, democracy and livelihood, which have been raised in the past and many of which have become relevant in the present context.

 

Our demands

Concerning nationality

  1.   All discriminatory treaties, including the 1950 Nepal-India Treaty, should be abrogated.
  2.  The so-called Integrated Mahakali Treaty concluded on 29 January, 1996 should be repealed immediately, as it is designed to conceal the disastrous Tanakpur Treaty and allows Indian imperialist monopoly over Nepal’s water resources.
  3.  The open border between Nepal and India should be regulated, controlled and systematized. All vehicles with Indian licence plates should be banned from Nepal.
  4.  The Gurkha/Gorkha Recruitment Centres should be closed. Nepali citizens should be provided dignified employment in the country.
  5.  Nepali workers should be given priority in different sectors. A ‘work permit’ system should be strictly implemented if foreign workers are required in the country.
  6.  The domination of foreign capital in Nepali industries, business and finance should be stopped.
  7.  An appropriate customs policy should be devised and implemented so that economic development helps the nation become self-reliant.
  8.  The invasion of imperialist and colonial culture should be banned. Vulgar Hindi films, videos and magazines should be immediately outlawed.
  9.  The invasion of colonial and imperial elements in the name of NGOs and INGOs should be stopped.Concerning people’s democracy

     

  10. A new constitution should be drafted by representatives elected for the establishment of a people’s democratic system.
  11.  All special privileges of the king and the royal family should be abolished.
  12.  The army, the police and the bureaucracy should be completely under people’s control.
  13.  All repressive acts, including the Security Act, should be repealed.
  14.  Everyone arrested extra-judicially for political reasons or revenge in Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Gorkha, Kabhrc, Sindhupalchowk. Sindhuli, Dhanusa, Ramechhap, and so on, should be immediately released. All false cases should be immediately withdrawn.
  15.  The operation of armed police, repression and state-sponsored terror should be immediately stopped.
  16.  The whereabouts of citizens who disappeared in police custody at different times, namely Dilip Chaudhary, Bhuwan Thapa Magar, Prabhakar Subedi and others, should be investigated and those responsible brought to justice. The families of victims should be duly compensated.
  17.  All those killed during the People’s Movement should be declared martyrs. The families of the martyrs and those injured and deformed should be duly compensated, and the murderers brought to justice.
  18.  Nepal should be declared a secular nation.
  19.  Patriarchal exploitation and discrimination against women should be stopped. Daughters should be allowed access to paternal property.
  20.  All racial exploitation and suppression should be stopped. Where ethnic communities are in the majority, they should be allowed to form their own autonomous governments.
  21.  Discrimination against downtrodden and backward people should be stopped. The system of untouchability should be eliminated.
  22.  All languages and dialects should be given equal opportunities to prosper. The right to education in the mother tongue up to higher levels should be guaranteed.
  23.  The right to expression and freedom of press and publication should be guaranteed. The government mass media should be completely autonomous.
  24. Academic and professional freedom of scholars, writers, artists and cultural workers should be guaranteed.
  25. Regional discrimination between the hills and the tarai should be eliminated. Backward areas should be given regional autonomy. Rural and urban areas should be treated at par.
  26. Local bodies should be empowered and appropriately equipped.
  27. Land should be belong to ‘tenants’. Land under the control of the feudal system should be confiscated and distributed to the landless and the homeless.Concerning livelihood

     

  28. The property of middlemen and comprador capitalists should be confiscated and nationalized. Capital lying unproductive should be invested to promote industrialization.
  29.  Employment should be guaranteed for all. Until such time as employment can be arranged, an unemployment allowance should be provided.
  30. A minimum wage for workers in industries, agriculture and so on should be fixed and strictly implemented.
  31.  The homeless should be rehabilitated. No one should be ‘ relocated until alternative infrastructure is guaranteed.
  32.  Poor farmers should be exempt from loan repayments. Loans taken by small farmers from the Agricultural Development Bank should be written off. Appropriate provisions should be made to provide loans for small farmers.
  33.  Fertilizer and seeds should be easily available and at a cheap rate. Farmers should be provided with appropriate prices and markets for their produce.
  34.  People in flood and drought-affected areas should be provided with appropriate relief materials.
  35.  Free and scientific health services and education should be available to all. The commercialization of education should be stopped.
  36.  Inflation should be checked. Wages should be increased proportionate to inflation. Essential goods should be cheaply and easily available to everyone.
  37.  Drinking water, roads and electricity should be provided to all villagers.
  38.  Domestic and cottage industries should be protected and promoted.
  39.  Corruption, smuggling, black marketing, bribery, and the practices of middlemen and so on should be eliminated.
  40.  Orphans, the disabled, the elderly and children should be duly honoured and protected.

 

We would like to request the present coalition government to immediately initiate steps to fulfill these demands which are inextricably linked with the Nepali nation and the life of the people. If there are no positive indications towards this from the government by 17 February, 1996, we would like to inform you that we will be forced to adopt the path of armed struggle against the existing state power.

 

Thank you.

 

Dr Baburam Bhattarai
Chairman
Central Committee, United People’s Front, Nepal

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Knowledge & Infos

What’s Special Today: January 31st

Published

on

What had happened on this date

1865

Image result for The United States Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing slavery and submits it to the states for ratification.

American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing slavery and submits it to the states for ratification.

1915

World War I: Germany is the first to make large-scale use of poison gas in warfare in the Battle of Bolimów against Russia.

1945

Image result for Stutthof concentration camp

Stutthof concentration camp

World War II: About 3,000 inmates from the Stutthof concentration camp are forcibly marched into the Baltic Sea and executed.

1951

North Korean civilians in the aftermath of a bombing by American planes over Pyongyang. Roughly 25 percent of the North’s population was believed to have been killed in the war.

Korean War

United Nations Security Council Resolution 90 relating to Korean War is adopted.

2018

Lunar eclipse January 31 2018 California Alfredo Garcia Jr mideclipse.jpg

Both a blue moon and a total lunar eclipse occur.

2020

The United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union will cease in accordance with Article 50.

Famous Birthday

Justin Timberlake
January 31, 1981

Image result for Justin Timberlake

Guido van Rossum
31 January 1956

Guido-portrait-2014-drc.jpg

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Knowledge & Infos

What’s Special Today: January 30th

Published

on

Events and Observances

Martyrs Day / Basanta Panchami (Nepal)

 

What had happened on this date

1820

Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica.

1826

Bont Borth.jpg

The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world’s first modern suspension bridge, is opened.

1902

The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance is signed in London.

1933

Related image

Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.

1948

Image result for mahatma gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.

1982

Richard Skrenta writes the first PC virus code, which is 400 lines long and disguised as an Apple boot program called “Elk Cloner”

Famous Birthday

Christian Bale
January 30, 1974

Image result for Christian Bale

Franklin D. Roosevelt
January 30, 1882

Image result for Franklin D. Roosevelt

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