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Timeline of History Of Earth

 

5 billion years ago :

  • There are stars and dust around the sun. Earth hasn’t formed yet. With time, gravity works to hold these rocks and dust to form planets.

 

4500 million years ago: 

  • Earth has been formed. Temperature is over 2000 F. The atmosphere is made up of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. And the earth surface is just an endless ocean of boiling lava.
  • Young hypothesized proto-planet Theia collides with the Earth, sending large number of moonlets into orbit around the Earth which eventually coalesce to form the Moon.
  • The entire day lasts only 6 hours.

 

3900 million years ago:

  • Although the core is still molten, the surface cools down to 70-80 degree celsius, forming crust.
  • The crust will allow the formation of oceans, from the water being carried by the continuous meteors shower occurring in the solar system.
  • With time, moon moves away causing the planet to spin slower.

 

3800 million years ago:

  • The lava bursts and form volcanic islands. But even with land and water, the temperature and atmosphere, however is not yet favorable for life.
  • As the meteors that have been falling down dissolve with water, they release minerals, carbon and primitive amino acids, turning water into the Chemical Soup. From this, the earliest form of life on earth is formed – Single celled bacteria (Prokaryotes).

 

3500 million years ago:

  • Stromatolites emerge on the bottom of the shallow ocean, with the extra ordinary capability of ”Photosynthesis”.  They slowly fill the oceans with oxygen.
  • The oxygen turns the traces of iron in the water into rust. These rusts accumulate in the ocean floor to form deposits of iron rich rocks.

 

1500 million years ago:

  • The temperature is 30 degree Celsius and days are now 18 hours long.
  • The core is so hot that it creates movement in the rock beneath the crust. As a result, the crust is broken into vast plates. The movement rearranges the plates and over 400 million years, a vast new super continent is formed called “Rodinia”.
  • Beneath the oceans, the stromatolites are still working their magic to create more oxygen.

 

750 million years ago:

  • As the heat inside the core tries to escape, it tears the crust apart and centimeter by centimeter, year by year, the great supercontinent splits in two.
  • The carbon dioxide emitted by continuous volcanoes mix with atmosphere to form acid rain, which is absorbed by rocks. However, there is not enough carbon dioxide to absorb sunlight.

 

650 million years ago:

  • In a few thousand years, the temperature plummets into -50 degree Celsius, giving rise to what the scientists called “The Snowball Earth”.
  • During this event, the entire planet is covered with ice as thick as three kilometers. Virtually, all the sunlight and warmth reflects back into space. It is believed to be the longest ice age to grip the planet.
  • Although the surface is frozen, the core is still hot. The carbon dioxide being emitted from volcanoes eruption, which now cannot be absorbed by the rocks as it’s covered by ice, forms a blanket of CO2 around the earth trapping the heat. After 15 million years, slowly the ice begins to melt.

 

600 million years ago:

  • The days last for 22 hours now and the climate is warmer.

 

540 million years ago:

  • Although the kind of glaciation in “The Snowball event” would have made life extinct entirely, some of the primitive life form clung through the Ice age and now a new life form- the first multi cellular organisms can be found.
  • Life in the ocean starts to blossom.

 

460 million years ago:

  • Even though there is life in ocean, the life on land is next to impossible due to lethal radiation from sun. However, ozone layer is in the process of formation.

 

375 million years ago:

  • Ozone layer has formed and the Earth is now shielded from radiation.
  • First land plants emerge.
  • The first tetra-pods evolve. From these creatures, all other four legged creatures like dinosaurs, birds, reptiles, mammals etc will evolve.
  • A major evolutionary breakthrough in this period is laying of eggs on the land.

 

250 million years ago:

  • The Siberian eruption leads to “Permian extinction”, which eliminates up to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates.

 

200 million years ago:

  • There is one single super continent “Pangea”, stretching from pole to pole.
  • The planet is healing, temperature stabilizing and vegetation returning. After the mass extinction, new species emerge- “The Dinosaurs”, which evolved from the handful of reptiles that survived the Permian extinction.

 

190 million years ago:

  • The Pangea breaks up and forms two continents. The chasm between two continents subsequently forms a new ocean “The Atlantic”.
  • Due to continuous eruptions and lava forcing its way out, new range of volcanic mountains are formed.

 

65 million years ago:

  • An asteroid 10 kilometers in diameter, travelling at speed of over 70000 km/hr hit the Earth and causes the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event with eradicating about half of all animal species, including the dinosaurs but excluding their descendants, the birds.
  • Purgatorius, a rat-sized placental mammal, becomes the earliest example of a primate or a proto-primate, which will later give rise to monkeys, apes and humans.

 

47 million years ago:

  • The temperature is 24 degree and days are under 24 hours, almost like our Earth we call home now.
  • Plates are in constant state of movement, forming a vast mountain range “ The Himalayas”.
  • Mount Everest is formed.

 

20 million years ago:

  • All the continents and oceans that we know today, have now been formed.
  • Some modern animals such as giraffes, hyenas, bears appear with increase in bird and mammal diversity.

 

4 million years ago:

  • Earliest bipedal emerged.

 

1.5 million years ago:

  • Homo Erectus were found.

 

70000 years ago:

  • The climate changes again. Sea levels fall and the gap between Africa and Arabia shrinks down to just 13 kilometers, making it easy for anatomically modern humans (Homo Sapiens)  to leave Africa and colonize other continents.

And then begun the Chapter of Humans.

 

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Health&Sports

They Need Us !!

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Before going for the Trek & Treat Campaign (Eye Health Screening Camp in remote areas of Nepal) I had some idea about what I would be seeing in those remote villages of Nepal. I was already aware of the fact that many remote places of Nepal are still deprived of basic health care services. I knew that the things we keep hearing on radio and televisions about people dying without getting a mere ORS solutions (Jeevan Jal) is still prevalent in many of such rural areas of Nepal. I also knew that there are many people whose blindness that can be prevented are still living their life in darkness. I always knew that there are people in those remote areas who does not have enough money to come to the city for their treatment. But is knowing things just enough?? Can we do something better than just knowing things? Hopefully we can !!

Let me tell you our journey of the first Trek & Treat Campaign. After 5 hours of hiking from RARA Lake we reached Khatyad, a remote village of Mugu District. The only means of transportation were the mules and there were no signs of proper health care centers around. We were trekking from RARA to Khaptad and Khatyad was on our way of the trekking route. We were prepared with our basic screening instruments and medicines to carry out our first screening camp at Khatyad and it was during our screening camp that I really felt upset about the health care system of our country about which I already knew before. We saw a 28 days old child who had injury in her left eye and needed immediate surgical intervention. Though the treatment of such cases are usually done at free of cost, the parents did not have enough money even to travel to the city. Sadly, the child passed away the next day without proper treatment facility in the village. Knowing things and seeing things were now completely two different things for me. After what I experienced being in that village for a couple of days made me realize that if I do not take things seriously now and work harder to solve this problem (at least the problem of eye health care service from my side) then I would be no different than other people who just know things but do nothing.

We now have dreamt of making Trek & Treat a nationwide health care campaign to reach those people who needs us. To make this happen we need help from everyone around us. Some of us here are Optometrists, Ophthalmologists, Physiotherapists, Cardiologists, Writers, Photographers, Content Creators, Bloggers, Drivers, etc, etc. If we can all just spare about couple of days from our busy schedule and work together to help those in need then we can indeed make places like Khatyad a better place with better facilities.

Changes come from ourselves. Please be the change and lead others to make the change.

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Business

Nepal makes major jump in ‘Ease of Doing Business’ Ranking 2020

The Doing Business project by World Bank provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level. 

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Nepal jumped 16 points to the 94th position on the World Bank’s ease of doing business ranking for 2020, with DB score of 63.2.

In 2019, Nepal was positioned at 110th rank which was a slip from its 105th  position in 2018.

The Doing Business project by World Bank provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level.  Doing Business captures several important dimensions of the regulatory environment as it applies to local firms. It provides quantitative indicators on regulation for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.  Doing Business also measures features of employing workers.



Ranking of doing business topics

Starting a business:

This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city.  Nepal ranked 135 among 190 economies in this topic.  

Dealing with Construction Permits

This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements.  Nepal ranked 107 among 190 economies in this topic.  

Getting electricity

The topic measures ease of getting electricity in Nepal by a business firm or warehouse if it has to apply for a new one.  Nepal ranked 135 among 190 economies in this topic.

Registering property

This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land administration system in each economy.  Nepal ranked 97 in this topic out of 190 economies.

Getting credit

This topic explores two sets of issues—the strength of credit reporting systems and the effectiveness of collateral and bankruptcy laws in facilitating lending.  Nepal has made significant improvement in this front and thus is ranked at 37th position out of 190 economies.

Protecting minority investors

This topic measures the strength of minority shareholder protections against misuse of corporate assets by directors for their personal gain as well as shareholder rights, governance safeguards and corporate transparency requirements that reduce the risk of abuse.  Nepal ranked 79 among 190 economies in this topic.  

Paying taxes

This topic records the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year, as well as the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions and complying with post-filing procedures (VAT refund and tax audit).  Nepal is quite behind when it comes to ease of paying taxes ranking at 175th position out of 190 economies.

Trading across borders

The topic records the time and cost associated with the logistical process of exporting and importing goods. It also measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs) associated with three sets of procedures—documentary compliance, border compliance and domestic transport—within the overall process of exporting or importing a shipment of goods.  Nepal ranked 60 in this topic.

Enforcing contracts

The enforcing contracts indicator measures the time and cost for resolving a commercial dispute through a local first-instance court, and the quality of judicial processes index, evaluating whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices that promote quality and efficiency in the court system.  Nepal ranked 151 out of 190 economies in this topic.

Resolving insolvency

It deals with the time, cost and outcome of insolvency proceedings involving domestic legal entities.  Nepal ranked 87.


Nepal’s Position in South Asia

Nepal ranks third in South Asia, India being first.

In overall, India jumped 14 places to rank 63.  It also secured its position in Top-10 Improvers.  China ranked 31

Also know this

Top 10 countries on Ease of Doing Business

  1.  New Zealand.
  2.  Singapore.
  3.  Hong Kong China
  4.  Denmark
  5.  Korea Republic
  6.  United States
  7.  Georgia
  8.  United Kingdom
  9.  Norway
  10.  Sweden

Worst 10 countries on Ease of Doing Business

  1.  Somalia
  2.  Eritrea
  3. Venezuela
  4. Yemen
  5. Libya
  6. South Sudan
  7. Central African Republic
  8. Congo
  9. Chad
  10. Timor-Leste

Lastly,

In 2014, Nepal ranked 94th position but then it went on slipping from the position to 110th, until this point where it has bounced back to 94th position.  However, Nepal could not make to Top-20 Improvers list, which is made based on reforms implemented in easing doing business, which should be of concern.

For complete report, click here

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Knowledge & Infos

How Einstein Discovered Time Travel

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Photo by Zulfa Nazer on Unsplash

In the year 1905 A.D, Einstein published his work that later came to be known as the “theory of special relativity”. The paper consisted of ideas that were far ahead of its time. The theory was revolutionary but also was so unconventional that it shook peoples intuition about space and time. The former concept of time being universal to all the being on and off earth was changed by him. His theory postulates that the speed of light will be same irrespective of the state of motion of its source.

His theory brought about the concept of time dilation. Time dilation simply means, that time runs slower when you travel at speed comparable to the speed of light i.e “c”. Now this may seem to be uncommon or had to visualize but its a proven phenomenon and that is how he discovered the ways for time travel. From his theory the following can be used for future time travel:

Speed:

It might come as a shock but the people in the international space station that is always rotating earth at a high speed are actually time travelers. Their constant state of motion in comparatively high speed bring about the minuscule level of time dilation. This dilation causes them to age slower than the rest of people on earth. In other words, if we are able to travel at a speed of 90% of light’s speed we will age 2.6 times slower than people on earth. Travel now at that speed and leave earth, if we come back after 4 years the earth will have already advanced by 10 years. That means we literally jumped 6 years of earth time. Though our friends on the ISS don’t experience such big time jump, but they do gain some very very small amount of extra time.

The particles that runs through particle accelerators like LHC, are very lucky. They travel at a speed of 99.99% of speed of light and for them 1 sec is equal to 11 months on earth normal time. This is the result of time dilation and thus Einstein discovered or more like theorized it.

 

Gravity:

The other method also came from Einstein. This time general relativity. In general relativity he introduced the concept of how the universe experiences the space and time as wide spread cloth that can bend when an object is placed over it. For simplicity imagine a stretch trampoline with a heavy ball in the middle. Those curves around the ball is the bend in space and time. Now if the ball is big enough to bring about a major bend in space and time, he says it can slower the time. Precise atomic clocks at different gravity level have been used to test for this phenomenon and turns out, it is true. When an object is subjected to heavy gravitational force it experiences a slower time. Practically, we would need a very heavy object like a black hole or other such scale heavenly bodies to see a significant time jump for us. Though it seems not feasible for humans any time soon, the clocks on the satellites seem to experience it all the time. Those clocks and the clocks on earth are required to be constantly synchronised taking in account for the gravity to keep them functioning.

The GPS satellites are constructed taking in account for both the time dilation and gravitational effects. If any one of them is left out, your GPS won’t be working as precisely as it should be.

Wormholes:

As explained in the movie “Interstellar”, wormholes are holes in spacetime connecting two different points of space and time. These “holes” in spacetime are also the solution to the equation published by Einstein in his theory of general relativity.   Theoretically, anything that goes through wormholes can jump between two points of space and time. It is believed that many wormholes are being constantly created and destroyed in the quantum level but finding a wormhole that can fit a person or a spaceship is a challenge yet to be completed.

Conclusion:

Apparently, time travel isn’t really an unattained dream at this point. The only compromise is it is not significantly large and we can’t seems to control at which point we exactly want to go. If you are still thinking about traveling back in time then it is discussed in this post. What you think about time travel? let us know in the comment.

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