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Voyager 2 probe enters interstellar space



For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. NASA’s Voyager 2 probe now has exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.

Voyager 2 now is slightly more than 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from Earth. Mission operators still can communicate with Voyager 2 as it enters this new phase of its journey, but information – moving at the speed of light – takes about 16.5 hours to travel from the spacecraft to Earth. By comparison, light traveling from the Sun takes about eight minutes to reach Earth.


The Voyager story has impacted not only generations of current and future scientists and engineers, but also Earth’s culture, including film, art and music. Each spacecraft carries a Golden Record of Earth sounds, pictures and messages. Since the spacecraft could last billions of years, these circular time capsules could one day be the only traces of human civilization.

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Myopia Management & OrthoKeratology



If you are wearing glasses, you surely do remember your first visit to your eye doctor. Many of you might have been prescribed spectacles or contact lenses as a remedy to the refractive correction (Glass Prescription). As a small kid, I remember my eye care professional prescribing me a -0.75 refractive correction (lens power) when I was around 11 years old.  By the time I was 20 years old, my refractive correction was -2.75.  I always used to wonder and ask myself why my refractive correction was increasing even though I was wearing spectacles as prescribed by my eye care professional.  Could this -2.00 Diopter of increase in power have been controlled?  Is there any way we can help children of 4 to 5 years, already having -1.00 Diopter of correction, stop them from becoming high Myopic (>-6.00 D) when they grow? Should we really worry about myopia control in children? What are the risk factors that comes after having a high myopia?

We have to be asking all these questions now and try getting the answers.  One of the reasons of Myopia progression is due to the elongation of the eyeball with its increase in axial length.  Myopia control wizards (Optometrists) have been trying their best to control this phenomenon of increasing the axial length of the eye ball to control the Myopia progression. Controlling Myopia does not just improve the patient’s quality of life but it also prevents vision threatening conditions like retinal detachments and retinal maculopathy.  Now, the question arises how do we control this normal phenomenon of the elongation of the eyeball? Luckily for us, many researchers has already found a way to control this phenomenon by various methods.

  1. Simply get out of your room and play outside:  Sounds simple yet very effective. If you want your children, brothers or sisters to be less vulnerable to refractive error, then send them outside to play. Though the exact reason for this is not known yet, many researchers have found out that spending just about 10 to 12 hours a week outside the room and indulging in outdoor activities helps to reduce myopia progression in Children.Hence, taking kids out of their digital gadgets and spending time outdoors can be beneficial in reducing Myopia progression.
  2. Low Dose Atropine: A low dose atropine of 0.01% is considered to be really helpful in controlling the progression of Myopia. The ATOM & LAMP trials study has shown that low dose atropine of 0.01% & 0.05% is more effective than 1% atropine with much less side effects and rebound effect. 2, 3
  3. Multifocal Contact Lens: The use of center distance design Multifocal Contact Lenses helps to reduce the elongation of the eye ball by creating a myopic defocus in the periphery of the retina. With normal spectacle and contact lenses, hyperopic defocus is created in the peripheral retina which makes the peripheral retina to elongate in order to focus the light rays into the retina. The center distance multifocal lenses has high add in the periphery which corrects this hyperopic defocus and pushes the light rays in front of the retina creating a myopic defocus which helps to control the elongation of the axial length of the eye ball.
  4. OrthoK Lenses: The OrthoK lenses corrects the Myopia by flattening the center of the cornea without the need of surgery. As in LASIK surgery, the OrthoK lenses helps to flatten the central corneal area which corrects the Myopia. The peripheral cornea creates a myopic defocus that helps to control the Myopia progression as well. The OrthoK lenses are the gold standard treatment for myopia control and is also one of the options for myopia correction.

Why should we worry about Myopia Progression?

Myopia progression today has become a topic of discussion for many of the eye health care practitioners. It is estimated that by the year 2050 about half of the world’s population will become myopic. So, if something is not done to control this progression, we will be seeing rise in more and more myopic patients in the days to come. But why should we actually worry about Myopia Progression?

With this digital age, children today spend most of their time in their electronic devices which is turning them into an early Myopes. We are now getting myopic cases more than ever. It is common to find more than -1 Diopter of Myopia in children of 5 to 6 years. If this is not corrected and controlled, these children are bound to become high Myopic at the age of 18. With high Myopia comes the high risk of many eye health conditions like Cataract, Glaucoma, Retinal Detachment & Maculopathy.

The only goal of Myopia Control & Orthokeratology is to stop these children from progressing from -1 Diopter to -6 or -7 Diopters.  If we can start Myopia Control now, the Myopia progression can be controlled by more than 50% and these children can be saved from the risk factors of high Myopia.


We are treating Myopia as a refractive error but now it’s time to take myopia as a disease and start treating it and help those children from progressing their myopia to become high Myopic. If you are a parent, brother or sister of a young myopic child, then please do start talking about myopia control with your eye health care professionals. Pediatric Ophthalmologists along with Optometrists who practices Myopia Control can stop the progression of Myopia. Refractionists and Ophthalmic Assistants can help you find if your children has any refractive errors and will refer you to the Myopia Control practitioner.



      1. Wu PCChen CTLin KK, et al. Myopia Prevention and Outdoor Light Intensity in a School-Based Cluster Randomized Trial. Available from:
      1. Li FFYam JC. Low-Concentration Atropine Eye Drops for Myopia Progression. Available from:
      1. Yam JCJiang Y, et al. Low-Concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression (LAMP) Study: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% Atropine Eye Drops in Myopia Control. Available from:
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Knowledge & Infos

The Story of Electricity – BBC Documentary

In all of the history of electricity, there are no specific time events that can be accounted particularly as the way we produce, distribute, install, and use electricity. Its history goes back to the compilation of nearly 300 years of research and development.



The Story of Electricity


English scientist Francis Hauksbee made a glass ball that glowed when spun and rubbed with the hand


English scientist Stephen Gray made the distinction between insulators and conductors


Stephen Gray shows that electricity doesn’t have to be made in place by rubbing but can also be transferred from place to place with conducting wires. He also shows that the charge on electrified objects resides on their surfaces.


German physicist Ewald Georg von Kleist and Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented Leyden jars


Benjamin Franklin invents the theory of one-fluid electricity in which one of Nollet’s fluids exists and the other is just the absence of the first. He proposes the principle of conservation of charge and calls the fluid that exists and flows “positive”. He also discovers that electricity can act at a distance in situations where fluid flow makes no sense.


American scientist Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was electrical by flying a kite, and explained how Leyden jars work


Henry Cavendish invents the idea of capacitance and resistance


Italian scientist Luigi Galvani discovered the Galvanic action in living tissue.


Italian physician, Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses when he made frog muscles twitch by jolting them with a spark from an electrostatic machine.


Italian physicist Alessandro Volta makes the first batteries and argues that animal electricity is just ordinary electricity flowing through the frog legs under the impetus of the force produced by the contact of dissimilar metals.


Alessandro Volta discovers the Voltaic pile (dissimilar metals separated by wet cardboard).


English inventor Francis Ronalds built the first working electric telegraph


English physicist Michael Faraday begins electrical work by repeating Oersted’s experiments. First electric motor.


Michael Faraday published the law of induction


Michael Faraday developed laws of electrolysis and invented thermistor


Michael Faraday discovers self-inductance.


American inventor Samuel Morse developed telegraphy and the Morse code


Michael Faraday discovers that the plane of polarization of light is rotated when it travels in a glass along the direction of the magnetic lines of force produced by an electromagnet (Faraday rotation).


Faraday discovers diamagnetism. He sees the effect in heavy glass, bismuth, and other materials.


Maxwell publishes a mechanical model of the electromagnetic field.


Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published four equations bearing his name


First transatlantic telegraph cable built


Edison Electric Light Co. (US) and American Electric and Illuminating (Canada) founded.


Sir William Crookes invents the radiometer and studies the interaction of beams of cathode ray particles in vacuum tubes.

November 4, 1879:

Thomas Alva Edison introduced a long-lasting filament for the incandescent lamp.


German physicist Heinrich Hertz proves the existence of electromagnetic waves, including what would come to be called radio waves.


Thomas Alva Edison invents the fuse


Indian physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose introduced the use of semiconductor junction to detect radio waves


First transatlantic radio transmission by Guglielmo Marconi


American engineers John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain together with their group leader William Shockley invented the transistor.


First fully transistorized computer in the US


American engineer Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit (IC)


Breakthrough on superconductor




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Knowledge & Infos

The History of Earth – Full Documentary

Scientists are still trying to unravel one of the greatest mysteries of earth: When did “life” first appear and how did it happen? It is estimated that the first life forms on earth were primitive, one-celled creatures that appeared about 3 billion years ago. This documentary is based on the best explanation scientist so far have gathered.



Timeline of History Of Earth


5 billion years ago :

  • There are stars and dust around the sun. Earth hasn’t formed yet. With time, gravity works to hold these rocks and dust to form planets.


4500 million years ago: 

  • Earth has been formed. Temperature is over 2000 F. The atmosphere is made up of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. And the earth surface is just an endless ocean of boiling lava.
  • Young hypothesized proto-planet Theia collides with the Earth, sending large number of moonlets into orbit around the Earth which eventually coalesce to form the Moon.
  • The entire day lasts only 6 hours.


3900 million years ago:

  • Although the core is still molten, the surface cools down to 70-80 degree celsius, forming crust.
  • The crust will allow the formation of oceans, from the water being carried by the continuous meteors shower occurring in the solar system.
  • With time, moon moves away causing the planet to spin slower.


3800 million years ago:

  • The lava bursts and form volcanic islands. But even with land and water, the temperature and atmosphere, however is not yet favorable for life.
  • As the meteors that have been falling down dissolve with water, they release minerals, carbon and primitive amino acids, turning water into the Chemical Soup. From this, the earliest form of life on earth is formed – Single celled bacteria (Prokaryotes).


3500 million years ago:

  • Stromatolites emerge on the bottom of the shallow ocean, with the extra ordinary capability of ”Photosynthesis”.  They slowly fill the oceans with oxygen.
  • The oxygen turns the traces of iron in the water into rust. These rusts accumulate in the ocean floor to form deposits of iron rich rocks.


1500 million years ago:

  • The temperature is 30 degree Celsius and days are now 18 hours long.
  • The core is so hot that it creates movement in the rock beneath the crust. As a result, the crust is broken into vast plates. The movement rearranges the plates and over 400 million years, a vast new super continent is formed called “Rodinia”.
  • Beneath the oceans, the stromatolites are still working their magic to create more oxygen.


750 million years ago:

  • As the heat inside the core tries to escape, it tears the crust apart and centimeter by centimeter, year by year, the great supercontinent splits in two.
  • The carbon dioxide emitted by continuous volcanoes mix with atmosphere to form acid rain, which is absorbed by rocks. However, there is not enough carbon dioxide to absorb sunlight.


650 million years ago:

  • In a few thousand years, the temperature plummets into -50 degree Celsius, giving rise to what the scientists called “The Snowball Earth”.
  • During this event, the entire planet is covered with ice as thick as three kilometers. Virtually, all the sunlight and warmth reflects back into space. It is believed to be the longest ice age to grip the planet.
  • Although the surface is frozen, the core is still hot. The carbon dioxide being emitted from volcanoes eruption, which now cannot be absorbed by the rocks as it’s covered by ice, forms a blanket of CO2 around the earth trapping the heat. After 15 million years, slowly the ice begins to melt.


600 million years ago:

  • The days last for 22 hours now and the climate is warmer.


540 million years ago:

  • Although the kind of glaciation in “The Snowball event” would have made life extinct entirely, some of the primitive life form clung through the Ice age and now a new life form- the first multi cellular organisms can be found.
  • Life in the ocean starts to blossom.


460 million years ago:

  • Even though there is life in ocean, the life on land is next to impossible due to lethal radiation from sun. However, ozone layer is in the process of formation.


375 million years ago:

  • Ozone layer has formed and the Earth is now shielded from radiation.
  • First land plants emerge.
  • The first tetra-pods evolve. From these creatures, all other four legged creatures like dinosaurs, birds, reptiles, mammals etc will evolve.
  • A major evolutionary breakthrough in this period is laying of eggs on the land.


250 million years ago:

  • The Siberian eruption leads to “Permian extinction”, which eliminates up to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates.


200 million years ago:

  • There is one single super continent “Pangea”, stretching from pole to pole.
  • The planet is healing, temperature stabilizing and vegetation returning. After the mass extinction, new species emerge- “The Dinosaurs”, which evolved from the handful of reptiles that survived the Permian extinction.


190 million years ago:

  • The Pangea breaks up and forms two continents. The chasm between two continents subsequently forms a new ocean “The Atlantic”.
  • Due to continuous eruptions and lava forcing its way out, new range of volcanic mountains are formed.


65 million years ago:

  • An asteroid 10 kilometers in diameter, travelling at speed of over 70000 km/hr hit the Earth and causes the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event with eradicating about half of all animal species, including the dinosaurs but excluding their descendants, the birds.
  • Purgatorius, a rat-sized placental mammal, becomes the earliest example of a primate or a proto-primate, which will later give rise to monkeys, apes and humans.


47 million years ago:

  • The temperature is 24 degree and days are under 24 hours, almost like our Earth we call home now.
  • Plates are in constant state of movement, forming a vast mountain range “ The Himalayas”.
  • Mount Everest is formed.


20 million years ago:

  • All the continents and oceans that we know today, have now been formed.
  • Some modern animals such as giraffes, hyenas, bears appear with increase in bird and mammal diversity.


4 million years ago:

  • Earliest bipedal emerged.


1.5 million years ago:

  • Homo Erectus were found.


70000 years ago:

  • The climate changes again. Sea levels fall and the gap between Africa and Arabia shrinks down to just 13 kilometers, making it easy for anatomically modern humans (Homo Sapiens)  to leave Africa and colonize other continents.

And then begun the Chapter of Humans.


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