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History of Jeans

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History of jeans

Two things that is so American, one is coca cola and another is jeans.  Jeans is undeniably the most popular outfit of our time.  So how did it all start?  First thing first, jeans was not an invention of America, but credit definitely goes to America for popularizing it.

1700s

Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa, Italy, and Nîmes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, may be the origin of the word “jeans”.  In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes, meaning “from Nîmes”.  The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry.  By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.

May 20, 1873 – The Birth of Jeans

Levi Strauss, as a young man in 1851, went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In 1853, he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. Jacob Davis was a tailor who often bought bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co. wholesale house. In 1872, Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets.  The copper rivets were to reinforce the points of stress, such as pocket corners and at the bottom of the button fly. Levi accepted Davis’s offer, and the two men received US patent No. 139,121 for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings” on May 20, 1873.

Initially, Levi’s jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers, miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West. During this period, men’s jeans had the fly down the front, whereas women’s jeans had the fly down the left side. When Levi Strauss & Co. patented the modern, mass-produced prototype in the year 1873, there were two pockets in the front and one on the back with copper rivets. Later, the jeans were redesigned to today’s industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets.

20th century

During World War II, US soldiers introduced jeans to the world, by wearing them off duty.

After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause, wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the 1950s. During the 1960s the wearing of jeans became more acceptable, and by the 1970s, it had become general fashion in the United States for casual wear.

Also, during 50s, teenagers embraced blue jeans, when Hollywood movies used jeans as a fashionable symbol of rebellion against the status quo. Pop culture “bad boys” such as James Dean and Marlon Brando popularized jeans in their films, wearing denim as they shook up the squares.

The 1960s launched the beginning of the hippie age. The youthful, free love movement that rocked American culture embraced the casual blue jean, which was seen to represent freedom from more structured clothing.  Embroidery, bright colors, stone washing, rhinestones , and patches were just some of the hip jean trends of the time. Popular cuts included bell bottom flares and low-rise hip huggers. Double denim also made its first real appearance as a fashion trend during the 1960s, and jean jackets became standard hippie wear, and were often decorated with sew-on decals.

In the early 1980s, the denim industry introduced the stone-washing technique developed by GWG also known as “Great Western Garment Co.” which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market.

Same time around, Calvin Klein brought denim to the forefront of every fashion designer’s mind. Designer jeans became a true status symbol in popular culture, and brands including Calvin Klein, Jordache, and Gloria Vanderbilt were among the most coveted by fashion girls and guys.  Stone wash, acid wash, and ripped jeans were some of the most desired looks of this decade, along with the new, skinnier leg cuts that were tapered at the ankle. Even men got in on the designer denim trend in this decade, and started to show up more in jeans advertising.

Likewise, with more cultural evolution, there came baggy jeans, skinny jeans, higher waists, cropped legs, and what not all.

and here we are.  Jeans is love, jeans is life.

 

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Health&Sports

They Need Us !!

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Before going for the Trek & Treat Campaign (Eye Health Screening Camp in remote areas of Nepal) I had some idea about what I would be seeing in those remote villages of Nepal. I was already aware of the fact that many remote places of Nepal are still deprived of basic health care services. I knew that the things we keep hearing on radio and televisions about people dying without getting a mere ORS solutions (Jeevan Jal) is still prevalent in many of such rural areas of Nepal. I also knew that there are many people whose blindness that can be prevented are still living their life in darkness. I always knew that there are people in those remote areas who does not have enough money to come to the city for their treatment. But is knowing things just enough?? Can we do something better than just knowing things? Hopefully we can !!

Let me tell you our journey of the first Trek & Treat Campaign. After 5 hours of hiking from RARA Lake we reached Khatyad, a remote village of Mugu District. The only means of transportation were the mules and there were no signs of proper health care centers around. We were trekking from RARA to Khaptad and Khatyad was on our way of the trekking route. We were prepared with our basic screening instruments and medicines to carry out our first screening camp at Khatyad and it was during our screening camp that I really felt upset about the health care system of our country about which I already knew before. We saw a 28 days old child who had injury in her left eye and needed immediate surgical intervention. Though the treatment of such cases are usually done at free of cost, the parents did not have enough money even to travel to the city. Sadly, the child passed away the next day without proper treatment facility in the village. Knowing things and seeing things were now completely two different things for me. After what I experienced being in that village for a couple of days made me realize that if I do not take things seriously now and work harder to solve this problem (at least the problem of eye health care service from my side) then I would be no different than other people who just know things but do nothing.

We now have dreamt of making Trek & Treat a nationwide health care campaign to reach those people who needs us. To make this happen we need help from everyone around us. Some of us here are Optometrists, Ophthalmologists, Physiotherapists, Cardiologists, Writers, Photographers, Content Creators, Bloggers, Drivers, etc, etc. If we can all just spare about couple of days from our busy schedule and work together to help those in need then we can indeed make places like Khatyad a better place with better facilities.

Changes come from ourselves. Please be the change and lead others to make the change.

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Business

Nepal makes major jump in ‘Ease of Doing Business’ Ranking 2020

The Doing Business project by World Bank provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level. 

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Nepal jumped 16 points to the 94th position on the World Bank’s ease of doing business ranking for 2020, with DB score of 63.2.

In 2019, Nepal was positioned at 110th rank which was a slip from its 105th  position in 2018.

The Doing Business project by World Bank provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level.  Doing Business captures several important dimensions of the regulatory environment as it applies to local firms. It provides quantitative indicators on regulation for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.  Doing Business also measures features of employing workers.



Ranking of doing business topics

Starting a business:

This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city.  Nepal ranked 135 among 190 economies in this topic.  

Dealing with Construction Permits

This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements.  Nepal ranked 107 among 190 economies in this topic.  

Getting electricity

The topic measures ease of getting electricity in Nepal by a business firm or warehouse if it has to apply for a new one.  Nepal ranked 135 among 190 economies in this topic.

Registering property

This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land administration system in each economy.  Nepal ranked 97 in this topic out of 190 economies.

Getting credit

This topic explores two sets of issues—the strength of credit reporting systems and the effectiveness of collateral and bankruptcy laws in facilitating lending.  Nepal has made significant improvement in this front and thus is ranked at 37th position out of 190 economies.

Protecting minority investors

This topic measures the strength of minority shareholder protections against misuse of corporate assets by directors for their personal gain as well as shareholder rights, governance safeguards and corporate transparency requirements that reduce the risk of abuse.  Nepal ranked 79 among 190 economies in this topic.  

Paying taxes

This topic records the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year, as well as the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions and complying with post-filing procedures (VAT refund and tax audit).  Nepal is quite behind when it comes to ease of paying taxes ranking at 175th position out of 190 economies.

Trading across borders

The topic records the time and cost associated with the logistical process of exporting and importing goods. It also measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs) associated with three sets of procedures—documentary compliance, border compliance and domestic transport—within the overall process of exporting or importing a shipment of goods.  Nepal ranked 60 in this topic.

Enforcing contracts

The enforcing contracts indicator measures the time and cost for resolving a commercial dispute through a local first-instance court, and the quality of judicial processes index, evaluating whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices that promote quality and efficiency in the court system.  Nepal ranked 151 out of 190 economies in this topic.

Resolving insolvency

It deals with the time, cost and outcome of insolvency proceedings involving domestic legal entities.  Nepal ranked 87.


Nepal’s Position in South Asia

Nepal ranks third in South Asia, India being first.

In overall, India jumped 14 places to rank 63.  It also secured its position in Top-10 Improvers.  China ranked 31

Also know this

Top 10 countries on Ease of Doing Business

  1.  New Zealand.
  2.  Singapore.
  3.  Hong Kong China
  4.  Denmark
  5.  Korea Republic
  6.  United States
  7.  Georgia
  8.  United Kingdom
  9.  Norway
  10.  Sweden

Worst 10 countries on Ease of Doing Business

  1.  Somalia
  2.  Eritrea
  3. Venezuela
  4. Yemen
  5. Libya
  6. South Sudan
  7. Central African Republic
  8. Congo
  9. Chad
  10. Timor-Leste

Lastly,

In 2014, Nepal ranked 94th position but then it went on slipping from the position to 110th, until this point where it has bounced back to 94th position.  However, Nepal could not make to Top-20 Improvers list, which is made based on reforms implemented in easing doing business, which should be of concern.

For complete report, click here

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Knowledge & Infos

How Einstein Discovered Time Travel

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Photo by Zulfa Nazer on Unsplash

In the year 1905 A.D, Einstein published his work that later came to be known as the “theory of special relativity”. The paper consisted of ideas that were far ahead of its time. The theory was revolutionary but also was so unconventional that it shook peoples intuition about space and time. The former concept of time being universal to all the being on and off earth was changed by him. His theory postulates that the speed of light will be same irrespective of the state of motion of its source.

His theory brought about the concept of time dilation. Time dilation simply means, that time runs slower when you travel at speed comparable to the speed of light i.e “c”. Now this may seem to be uncommon or had to visualize but its a proven phenomenon and that is how he discovered the ways for time travel. From his theory the following can be used for future time travel:

Speed:

It might come as a shock but the people in the international space station that is always rotating earth at a high speed are actually time travelers. Their constant state of motion in comparatively high speed bring about the minuscule level of time dilation. This dilation causes them to age slower than the rest of people on earth. In other words, if we are able to travel at a speed of 90% of light’s speed we will age 2.6 times slower than people on earth. Travel now at that speed and leave earth, if we come back after 4 years the earth will have already advanced by 10 years. That means we literally jumped 6 years of earth time. Though our friends on the ISS don’t experience such big time jump, but they do gain some very very small amount of extra time.

The particles that runs through particle accelerators like LHC, are very lucky. They travel at a speed of 99.99% of speed of light and for them 1 sec is equal to 11 months on earth normal time. This is the result of time dilation and thus Einstein discovered or more like theorized it.

 

Gravity:

The other method also came from Einstein. This time general relativity. In general relativity he introduced the concept of how the universe experiences the space and time as wide spread cloth that can bend when an object is placed over it. For simplicity imagine a stretch trampoline with a heavy ball in the middle. Those curves around the ball is the bend in space and time. Now if the ball is big enough to bring about a major bend in space and time, he says it can slower the time. Precise atomic clocks at different gravity level have been used to test for this phenomenon and turns out, it is true. When an object is subjected to heavy gravitational force it experiences a slower time. Practically, we would need a very heavy object like a black hole or other such scale heavenly bodies to see a significant time jump for us. Though it seems not feasible for humans any time soon, the clocks on the satellites seem to experience it all the time. Those clocks and the clocks on earth are required to be constantly synchronised taking in account for the gravity to keep them functioning.

The GPS satellites are constructed taking in account for both the time dilation and gravitational effects. If any one of them is left out, your GPS won’t be working as precisely as it should be.

Wormholes:

As explained in the movie “Interstellar”, wormholes are holes in spacetime connecting two different points of space and time. These “holes” in spacetime are also the solution to the equation published by Einstein in his theory of general relativity.   Theoretically, anything that goes through wormholes can jump between two points of space and time. It is believed that many wormholes are being constantly created and destroyed in the quantum level but finding a wormhole that can fit a person or a spaceship is a challenge yet to be completed.

Conclusion:

Apparently, time travel isn’t really an unattained dream at this point. The only compromise is it is not significantly large and we can’t seems to control at which point we exactly want to go. If you are still thinking about traveling back in time then it is discussed in this post. What you think about time travel? let us know in the comment.

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