The Story of Electricity – BBC Documentary
In all of the history of electricity, there are no specific time events that can be accounted particularly as the way we produce, distribute, install, and use electricity. Its history goes back to the compilation of nearly 300 years of research and development.
The Story of Electricity
English scientist Francis Hauksbee made a glass ball that glowed when spun and rubbed with the hand
English scientist Stephen Gray made the distinction between insulators and conductors
Stephen Gray shows that electricity doesn’t have to be made in place by rubbing but can also be transferred from place to place with conducting wires. He also shows that the charge on electrified objects resides on their surfaces.
German physicist Ewald Georg von Kleist and Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented Leyden jars
Benjamin Franklin invents the theory of one-fluid electricity in which one of Nollet’s fluids exists and the other is just the absence of the first. He proposes the principle of conservation of charge and calls the fluid that exists and flows “positive”. He also discovers that electricity can act at a distance in situations where fluid flow makes no sense.
American scientist Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was electrical by flying a kite, and explained how Leyden jars work
Henry Cavendish invents the idea of capacitance and resistance
Italian scientist Luigi Galvani discovered the Galvanic action in living tissue.
Italian physician, Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses when he made frog muscles twitch by jolting them with a spark from an electrostatic machine.
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta makes the first batteries and argues that animal electricity is just ordinary electricity flowing through the frog legs under the impetus of the force produced by the contact of dissimilar metals.
Alessandro Volta discovers the Voltaic pile (dissimilar metals separated by wet cardboard).
English inventor Francis Ronalds built the first working electric telegraph
English physicist Michael Faraday begins electrical work by repeating Oersted’s experiments. First electric motor.
Michael Faraday published the law of induction
Michael Faraday developed laws of electrolysis and invented thermistor
Michael Faraday discovers self-inductance.
American inventor Samuel Morse developed telegraphy and the Morse code
Michael Faraday discovers that the plane of polarization of light is rotated when it travels in a glass along the direction of the magnetic lines of force produced by an electromagnet (Faraday rotation).
Faraday discovers diamagnetism. He sees the effect in heavy glass, bismuth, and other materials.
Maxwell publishes a mechanical model of the electromagnetic field.
Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published four equations bearing his name
First transatlantic telegraph cable built
Edison Electric Light Co. (US) and American Electric and Illuminating (Canada) founded.
Sir William Crookes invents the radiometer and studies the interaction of beams of cathode ray particles in vacuum tubes.
November 4, 1879:
Thomas Alva Edison introduced a long-lasting filament for the incandescent lamp.
German physicist Heinrich Hertz proves the existence of electromagnetic waves, including what would come to be called radio waves.
Thomas Alva Edison invents the fuse
Indian physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose introduced the use of semiconductor junction to detect radio waves
First transatlantic radio transmission by Guglielmo Marconi
American engineers John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain together with their group leader William Shockley invented the transistor.
First fully transistorized computer in the US
American engineer Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit (IC)
Breakthrough on superconductor
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History of jeans
Two things that is so American, one is coca cola and another is jeans. Jeans is undeniably the most popular outfit of our time. So how did it all start? First thing first, jeans was not an invention of America, but credit definitely goes to America for popularizing it.
Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa, Italy, and Nîmes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, may be the origin of the word “jeans”. In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes, meaning “from Nîmes”. The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.
May 20, 1873 – The Birth of Jeans
Levi Strauss, as a young man in 1851, went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In 1853, he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. Jacob Davis was a tailor who often bought bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co. wholesale house. In 1872, Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets. The copper rivets were to reinforce the points of stress, such as pocket corners and at the bottom of the button fly. Levi accepted Davis’s offer, and the two men received US patent No. 139,121 for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings” on May 20, 1873.
Initially, Levi’s jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers, miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West. During this period, men’s jeans had the fly down the front, whereas women’s jeans had the fly down the left side. When Levi Strauss & Co. patented the modern, mass-produced prototype in the year 1873, there were two pockets in the front and one on the back with copper rivets. Later, the jeans were redesigned to today’s industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets.
During World War II, US soldiers introduced jeans to the world, by wearing them off duty.
After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause, wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the 1950s. During the 1960s the wearing of jeans became more acceptable, and by the 1970s, it had become general fashion in the United States for casual wear.
Also, during 50s, teenagers embraced blue jeans, when Hollywood movies used jeans as a fashionable symbol of rebellion against the status quo. Pop culture “bad boys” such as James Dean and Marlon Brando popularized jeans in their films, wearing denim as they shook up the squares.
The 1960s launched the beginning of the hippie age. The youthful, free love movement that rocked American culture embraced the casual blue jean, which was seen to represent freedom from more structured clothing. Embroidery, bright colors, stone washing, rhinestones , and patches were just some of the hip jean trends of the time. Popular cuts included bell bottom flares and low-rise hip huggers. Double denim also made its first real appearance as a fashion trend during the 1960s, and jean jackets became standard hippie wear, and were often decorated with sew-on decals.
In the early 1980s, the denim industry introduced the stone-washing technique developed by GWG also known as “Great Western Garment Co.” which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market.
Same time around, Calvin Klein brought denim to the forefront of every fashion designer’s mind. Designer jeans became a true status symbol in popular culture, and brands including Calvin Klein, Jordache, and Gloria Vanderbilt were among the most coveted by fashion girls and guys. Stone wash, acid wash, and ripped jeans were some of the most desired looks of this decade, along with the new, skinnier leg cuts that were tapered at the ankle. Even men got in on the designer denim trend in this decade, and started to show up more in jeans advertising.
Likewise, with more cultural evolution, there came baggy jeans, skinny jeans, higher waists, cropped legs, and what not all.
and here we are. Jeans is love, jeans is life.
What is Paranoia
People with paranoia may feel that others are plotting against them or trying to cause them physical or emotional harm, and maybe even stealing from them. They may be unable to work with others and can be hostile or detached, leading to isolation.
Paranoia is a thought process that causes you to have an irrational suspicion or mistrust of others. People with paranoia may feel like they’re being persecuted or that someone is out to get them. They may feel the threat of physical harm even if they aren’t in danger. People with dementia sometimes have paranoia, and it also can occur in people who abuse drugs. Paranoid thoughts can also be a symptom of a mental illness or a personality disorder.
Note: Paranoia is distinct from phobias, which also involve irrational fear, but usually no blame.
Symptoms of paranoia
Everyone experiences paranoid thoughts at some point in their life, but paranoia is the constant experience of symptoms and unfounded feelings of paranoia. The symptoms of paranoia vary in severity and can interfere with all areas of life. The symptoms include:
- A constant stress or anxiety related to beliefs they have about others
- A mistrust of others
- A feeling disbelieved or misunderstood
- A feeling victimized or persecuted when there isn’t a threat
Mistrust of others and constant anxiety can make relationships and interactions with others difficult, causing problems with employment and personal relationships. People with paranoia may feel that others are plotting against them or trying to cause them physical or emotional harm, and maybe even stealing from them. They may be unable to work with others and can be hostile or detached, leading to isolation.
About Nepal Sambat
Nepal Sambat (नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar and the official calendar of Nepal for over 1000 years. Nepal Sambat is almost identical to and is a variant of “Saka Sambat”, a Hindu calendar, but the main difference is that Nepal Sambat lags Saka Sambat by 802 years.
Nepal Sambat consists of 354 days per year due to the fact that a lunar month has 29 or 30 days based on the movement of the moon. So it necessary that an “adhik mas”, an extra month, every third year (Just like what we had this past year). This calendar came into official use during the reign of Thaku-Juju (Thakuri) King Raghav Deva since October 880 A.D.
According to a popular legend, there used to be a learned person in Bhaktapur who ordered porters to get sand from Lakhu Tirtha, junction near Vishnumati river in Kathmandu because he knew that the sand would turn into a heap of gold the next day. Shankhadhar Sakhwaa who is described in later chronicles as a Shudra (lower-caste) merchant came to know about it, and he enticed the porters to leave the sand in his place. The next day, the sand turned into gold. Then, with the permission of the king, he paid off the existing debt of all the people in the Kathmandu Valley. So from that day, people started celebrating it as their New Year to commemorate their happiness and new found freedom.
This calendar was the national calendar of Nepal Valley in Thaku-Juju (Thakuri), Varman, Malla and early Shah eras. It was replaced by Bikram Sambat as the national calendar in the Rana era. However, the calendar is still in use because most of Nepal’s Hindu festivals are celebrated according to this calendar which utilises “tithi” as opposed to Bikram Sambat’s “miti” or Gregorian calendar’s “tarikh”. The government of Nepal re-recognised the Nepal Sambat as the national calendar in 2007 A.D./1128 N.S. As a result of which most of the Nepalese national newspaper have employed this calendar together with the Gregorian calendar and the Bikram Sambat.
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